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Referencing and assignment writing: Audiovisual works

Audiovisual works

WHO. (WHEN). WHAT. WHERE.

 

In order to reproduce audiovisual works it is usually necessary to seek permission from the copyright owner.

 

To reference an audiovisual work follow the WHO. WHEN. WHAT. WHERE. format. Omit any element that is unknown.

The WHO part depends on the type of source, as listed below. (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 341). Add the specific contribution information in parentheses after the person's name.

 

Type of source

WHO information (Role)

Film

Director

TV series

Executive producer/s

TV series episode

Writer & director of episode

Podcast

Host or executive producer

Podcast episode

Host of episode

Webinar

Instructor

Classical music

Composer

Modern recording

Recording artist

Artwork

Artist

Streaming video

Whoever uploaded the video

Photograph

Photographer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The way you cite an audiovisual source will depend on whether the source is a complete, stand-alone work, such as a movie, a TV series, a podcast, a whole album, etc, or part of a greater whole, such as an episode of a TV series, a podcast episode, or a song from an album, etc. (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 342). 

 

Stand-alone works

Use the following template:

Who (Role). (When). What [Description]. Where. URL

 

Film, video

In-text:              (Howard, 2001)     OR       ...was beautifully portrayed in Howard's movie (2001)...

Reference list:     Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [Film]. Universal Studios.

 

Podcast (audio or video)

In-text:              (Hollick, 2019)      OR      ...and as Hollick (2019) managed to show in...

Reference list:     Hollick, A. (Producer). (2019, June 13). Duvet Days [Audio Podcast].                                                                                                         https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p07crkvp

 

Photograph, image, chart

In-text:               (Lyne, 2009)

Reference list:      Lyne, A. (2009). Grevillea rosmarinifolia 'Rosy Posy' [Photograph].                                                                                                          http://www.anbg.gov.au/iftw.old/iftw-2009-05-01.html

 

Parts of whole works

This is similar to citing a chapter from a book. The WHERE segment includes the details of the whole work, preceded by "in" (a book, TV series, etc), "on" (an album, etc).

Use the following template:

Who (Role). (When). What (Detail e.g. season no., episode no., title of song) [Description]. in/on Where. URL

 
 
Episode from a series (radio, TV)

In-text:               (Bergen & O'Sullivan, 2010)

Reference list:      Bergen, P. (Presenter & Writer), & O'Sullivan, M. (Director). (2010, January 28). Little gem that needs                                                     protecting [Radio broadcast]. In E. Farley (Executive Producer), ABC Rural. ABC.

 

Track from an album

In-text:               (Jarrett, 1972, track 1)     

Reference:           Jarrett, K. (Composer & Piano). (1972). In front (track 1). On Facing you [CD]. ECM.

 

YouTube, etc

In-text:                (Rhodes Trust, 2018)     

Reference list:       Rhodes Trust. (2018, May 22). What on Earth are the Rhodes Scholarships? [Video].                                                                               YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPzbDpNpKuA&feature=youtu.be

Style manual

If you cannot find a specific example of what you are looking for, use the complete APA manual.

APA Style - Quick Reference Guide

Reference list abbreviations

(APA, 2020, pp. 306-307)

Abbreviation

edition

ed.

Revised edition

Rev. ed.

second edition   

2nd ed.

Editor (editors)

Ed. (Eds.)

Translator(s)

Trans.

no date

n.d.

page (pages)

p. (pp.)

Volume (Volumes)

Vol. (Vols.)

Number

No.

Part

Pt.

Technical Report

Tech. Rep.

Supplement

Suppl.