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Referencing and assignment writing: WHEN - citing Dates

WHEN was the work published or created?

WHO. (WHEN). WHAT. WHERE.

 

WHEN was the work published or created?

The WHEN segment will normally be the date of publication for published works and the date of creation for unpublished works. It will generally be in one of the following formats:

  • year only: (2020).

  • exact date: (2018, August 15).

  • year and month: (2020, January).

  • year and season: (Winter, 2019).

  • range of years, range of exact dates: (2019-2020); (2018, August 15-18).

  • no date: (n.d.). 

  • use (in press) for works accepted for publication but not yet published.

The WHEN element is enclosed in parentheses, either by itself, as above, or with the author of the work in-text, e.g. (Sternberg, 1993).

 

 

Style manual

If you cannot find a specific example of what you are looking for, use the complete APA manual.

APA Style - Quick Reference Guide

Reference list abbreviations

(APA, 2020, pp. 306-307)

Abbreviation

edition

ed.

Revised edition

Rev. ed.

second edition   

2nd ed.

Editor (editors)

Ed. (Eds.)

Translator(s)

Trans.

no date

n.d.

page (pages)

p. (pp.)

Volume (Volumes)

Vol. (Vols.)

Number

No.

Part

Pt.

Technical Report

Tech. Rep.

Supplement

Suppl.