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Referencing guide: Home


Step 1. Before you use this library guide check: Does your School have its own referencing guide? Check your unit outline, or ask your lecturer or tutor.

Step 2. If you are using this guide or another guide and you are still unsure about a particular citation, it is always best to check with your lecturer or tutor - they will be marking your work after all.

Step 3. Refer to the Style Manual. UTAS Library holds print Style Manuals (complete guides) for the following referencing styles: Harvard, APA, MLA, Chicago, Vancouver & Turabian. You can find these manuals on the shelves in UTAS Library branches. To locate these books please refer to the other pages in this guide.

Step 4. If you have followed steps 1 - 3 and you still need referencing help, see options below for contacting us.

Referencing systems

Most referencing styles fit into one of four systems. Follow the links to the latest versions of the guides. 

Author-date system

Author-page system Footnote system Vancouver system

APA 7th

MLA 9th  AGLC4 


Simplified Author-date Chicago  NLM 
UTAS Harvard Turabian

Australian Government  Oxford
These manuals provide examples for Author-date and Footnote. 

Learning and Research Librarians can provide general advice on referencing, based on the information in this guide. Please note that we cannot proof-read your references.

Options for requesting our help are shown below:

Find the Libchat widget in the bottom right corner of our library homepage:

A great option for asking a single, specific question, Monday to Friday, 9am to 4pm.

Email a brief explanation of your question or issue to Learning & Research Librarians, who monitor a shared mailbox from Monday-Friday, 9am-5pm.

To help us to respond more efficiently, extra details can be submitted via this form instead:

Appointments may be requested for individual help with referencing if you have questions or issues that remain after following advice in this guide. 

Face-to-face appointments are offered in most locations and Zoom is available everywhere.

Phone: 03 6226 2130

You're welcome to call us between 9am-5pm, Monday to Friday.

Please note:

  • we may be unavailable to answer. If you leave a message we will return your call, usually within the same day
  • when speaking to you, we may redirect you to make an appointment so we can focus more effectively on the detail of your specific request


News: Use of artificial intelligence (AI) sources

Please refer to general University guidance about acceptable use of artificial intelligence (AI) tools for study via the Student Portal, and confirm with your unit coordinator what is permissible in your specific unit our course.

Mostly, content from generative AI should be treated as a nonrecoverable source as it cannot be retrieved, linked or consulted later.

Our broad recommendation is that you base your referencing for generative AI content on the reference style provisions for personal communication or correspondence.

In instances where the use of generative AI is accessible for consultation later, the reference style provisions for a page on a website should be used.

In this guide, consult the tab for the relevant style for your discipline, course or unit to see citation examples.

Please note: As the landscape surrounding the use and acknowledgement of generative AI in assessment is complex and rapidly evolving, students should always confirm with the course lecturer what is permitted for a specific assignment. In the future, you may be required to acknowledge your use of generative AI, including a description of the AI tool used, what you did, and the date accessed, even if you do not include any AI generated content in the body of your work.

Where can I find more information about academic writing and study skills?

Learning and Academic Skills staff support:

  • Academic Reading,
  • Critical Thinking,
  • Essay Writing,
  • Grammar,
  • Making Better Notes,
  • Oral Presentations,
  • Revising for Exams,
  • Time Management,
  • and more. 

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