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Referencing and assignment writing: WHERE - citing location information

WHERE can I locate this work?



WHERE can I find the work?

This part normally consists of the publishing information that assists the reader in locating the source. The elements required in this segment will depend on whether the work is:

  • a stand-alone work, e.g. a book, a movie, a journal or a magazine, a thesis, a TV series, a podcast


  • part of a greater whole, e.g. a chapter in a book, an article in a journal or a magazine, an episode in a TV series or podcast

Certain types of sources will also have an associated DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or URL.

  • Copy the publisher name as shown in the work, followed by a full-stop.

  • Do not include designations such as Pty, Ltd, Inc.

  • If more than one publisher is listed include all of them, separated by semicolons.

  • When the author is the same as the publisher, e.g. American Psychological Association, omit the publisher.

  • Location information is only necessary for certain types of works and only if they assist the reader in locating the source, e.g. conference presentations, artworks in museums, etc. Include the city, state/province/territory, and country.

DOIs and URLs
  • Include DOIs or URLs for all works that have them, regardless of whether you have used an online or print version. If both a DOI and a URL are available, use only the DOI as it provides a persistent link to the work.

  • If the source is from a database, e.g. a journal article, the database information is generally not required as many sources are available from a variety of databases. The database information is only needed when the source is only available from that database. If the database requires authentication, provide the URL of the home page only.

  • Use the hyperlink format for both DOIs and URL, e.g.

  • Do not use any punctuation at the end of DOIs or URLs as punctuation could interfere with the link.

No source

Do not include references in your Reference list that do not have an accessible source, e.g. personal communication, as the reader will not be able to get the work. Such sources should only be cited in-text, e.g. (J. Smith, personal communication, January 31, 2020) or suggested by J. Smith (personal communication, December 31, 2019)...


See specific examples of references further in this guide for more information on WHERE.

Style manual

If you cannot find a specific example of what you are looking for, use the complete APA manual.

APA Style - Quick Reference Guide

Reference list abbreviations

(APA, 2020, pp. 306-307)




Revised edition

Rev. ed.

second edition   

2nd ed.

Editor (editors)

Ed. (Eds.)



no date


page (pages)

p. (pp.)

Volume (Volumes)

Vol. (Vols.)





Technical Report

Tech. Rep.