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Referencing and Assignment Writing guide: WHAT - citing Titles

WHAT is the work called?



WHAT is the work called?

This is normally the TITLE of the cited work. This could be either:

  • a stand-alone work, e.g. a book, a movie, a journal or a magazine, a thesis, a TV series, a podcast


  • part of a greater whole, e.g. a chapter in a book, an article in a journal or a magazine, an episode in a TV series or podcast

For works that are not the "standard" academic literature, it is useful to identify the type of work it is. This is normally done by placing the description in square brackets after the title but before the full stop, e.g. Echo 8 [Film].

Stand-alone works

Italicise the title and capitalise using sentence case. For books, reports and other works which have additional information, such as the edition of the book, volume number for multi-volume works, etc, enclose the additional information in parentheses after the title. The additional information should not be italicised. If there are more than one, separate each piece of additional information with a comma, e.g. (4th ed., vol. 2). No punctuation is needed between the title and the information in parentheses, e.g.  

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).


Works which are part of a greater whole

Do not italicise the title or use quotation marks. Capitalise using sentence case. When you are citing a work which is part of a greater whole, e.g. a chapter in a book, the title of the book itself in which the chapter is published appears in the WHERE element, e.g.

Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory and consciousness (pp. 309-330). Erlbaum.

No title

If the work has no identifiable title, include a description of the work in square brackets in place of a title, e.g. 

Rodin, A. (1885). [Sculpture of a child]. Museum of Art, Rome, Italy.


Style manual

If you cannot find a specific example of what you are looking for, use the complete APA manual.

APA Style - Quick Reference Guide

Reference list abbreviations

(APA, 2020, pp. 306-307)




Revised edition

Rev. ed.

second edition   

2nd ed.

Editor (editors)

Ed. (Eds.)



no date


page (pages)

p. (pp.)

Volume (Volumes)

Vol. (Vols.)





Technical Report

Tech. Rep.