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Referencing and assignment writing: WHO - citing Authors and other Creators

WHO is responsible for the work?

WHO. (WHEN). WHAT. WHERE.

 

WHO created the work?

This is the person or a group of people primarily responsible for the creation of the work being described. It could be the author of a book, the author of an essay in an edited book, the author of an article in a journal, magazine or newspaper, the author or creator of a web page; a director and/or producer of a movie; the artist who created a piece of art, the host of a podcast, a blogger, etc.

The WHO segment of a reference can be:

  • an individual person
  • a number of individuals
  • an organisation, a government department, etc
  • not available - the information is unknown or missing 

Follow the spelling and capitalisation of the name/s exactly as they appear in the cited work.

 

One individual

In-text, use the surname only, followed by a comma and the year in parentheses. If the surname is incorporated into the sentence, use only the year in parentheses. The reference list entry starts with the surname, followed by a comma, and the initial/s. Use a single space between the initials:

In-text: (Surname, Year)  or Surname is part of the sentence (Year)

Reference list: Surname, A. A.

 

Two individuals

In-text, use the surnames with an ampersand (&) between the names, followed by a comma and the year in parentheses. If the surnames are incorporated into the sentence, use and between the names and place only the year in parentheses. The reference list entry gives the first surname, followed by a comma, and the initial/s. Then use a comma to separate the first person's initials from the second one, followed by an ampersand (&).

In-text: (Surname & Surname, Year)  or Surname and Surname are part of the sentence (Year)

Reference list: Surname, A. A., & Surname, B. B. 

 

Three to 20 individuals

In-text, use the first surname only followed by et al., a comma and the year in parentheses. Within a sentence, use the first surname only followed by et al. and place the year only in parentheses. In the Reference list, provide surnames and initials for up to and including 20 individuals. Use an ampersand before the final person's name.

In-text: (Surname et al., Year)  or Surname et al. are part of the sentence (Year)

Reference list: Surname, A. A., Surname, B. B., & Surname, C. C. 

 

Over 20 individuals

In-text, use the first surname only followed by et al., a comma and the year in parentheses. Within a sentence, use the first surname only followed by et al. and place the year only in parentheses. In the Reference list, provide surnames and initials for the first 19 individuals, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand), and then add the final person’s name.

In-text: (Surname et al., Year)  or Surname et al. are part of the sentence (Year)

Reference list: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.

 

An organisation, government department, etc

When a group or an organisation authorises or commissions a particular work, that work is published by what is known as the corporate author - a group author. The name of a group author is generally easily located in printed works. It can be found on the cover and/or the title page. On websites or web pages, it might not always be the case, and it may be necessary to check other places such as the "About us", the "Copyright" or the "Acknowledgements" page/s.

Always spell out the full name of a group author in the References list. In-text, spell out the full name in the first instance, followed by an abbreviation: 

In-text:            (American Psychological Association, 2020) or, in subsequent citations (APA, 2020) 

or, as part of a sentence

     The American Psychological Association has recently produced a new publication manual (2020).

Reference list:    American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th                                   ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

 

No author

When the author is unknown or cannot be determined, use the title of the work instead.

In-text:           (Management Basics, 2009)  OR,  as part of a sentence:

             As described in Management Basics, the manager should look at strengths and weaknesses of each team member              (2009).

Reference list:   Management Basics. (2009). Where Publishing.

 

Do not use the word "Anonymous" unless that is the official author (i.e. the word "Anonymous" appears as the author in the work).

Style manual

If you cannot find a specific example of what you are looking for, use the complete APA manual.

APA Style - Quick Reference Guide

References abbreviations

(APA, 2020, pp. 306-307)

Abbreviation

edition

ed.

Revised edition

Rev. ed.

second edition   

2nd ed.

Editor (editors)

Ed. (Eds.)

Translator(s)

Trans.

no date

n.d.

page (pages)

p. (pp.)

Volume (Volumes)

Vol. (Vols.)

Number

No.

Part

Pt.

Technical Report

Tech. Rep.

Supplement

Suppl.