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Referencing and assignment writing: Bibliography



In the traditional note system, it is more common to use a bibliography than a list of references. In some cases when you use endnotes rather than footnotes, an additional bibliography may not be required. (Check with your lecturer).

At the end of your assignment, attach a list of all material which you have consulted in preparing your work. The list may contain items which you have chosen not to quote from or which you have decided were not helpful. Nevertheless, these items have formed part of your preparation and should be included. The list thus produced forms your bibliography. It is possible that your bibliography may contain just one item, the primary text, if that is honestly all you have used. The bibliography is organised according to the authors' last names which are arranged in alphabetical order.

Bibliographical entries differ from footnotes or endnotes in a straightforward way that is easy to remember. Bibliographies end assignments, and each component of an individual entry is presented in final form, punctuated by full stops.

Bibliographical entries may vary in complexity. In general, use the following ordering systems as your guide in presenting material. Appropriate punctuation is shown.



    • name of author/s, editor/s or institution responsible for the book.
    • Full Title of the Book : Including Sub-title.
    • volume number or total number of volumes in a multi-volume work.
    • edition, if not the first.
    • city of publication :
    • publisher,
    • date of publication.


    • name of author/s.
    • "Title of the article."
    • Title of Serial
    • volume number,
    • no. issue number
    • (date):
    • page range of whole article.



Levine, Joseph M. The Battle of the Books : History and Literature in the Augustan Age. Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 1991.

Boswell, James. The Life of Samuel Johnson. Edited by George Birkbeck Hill and L.F. Powell. 2 vols. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1934.

Soltes, Ori Z., ed. Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages. London: Philip Wilson, 1999.


Holloway, John. "Dickens and the Symbol," in Dickens 1970, edited by Michael Slater, 50-63. London : Chapman Hall, 1970.


MacFarlane,I. "Aboriginal Society in North West Tasmania: Dispossession and Genocide." PhD thesis, University of Tasmania, 2002.

Reprint Editions and Modern Editions

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, 1925. Reprinted with preface and notes by Matthew J. Brouccoli. New York: Collier Books, 1992.

*The availability of an electronic version can be added as needed.

National Reconnaisance Office. The KH, 4B Camera System. Washington, DC: National Photographic Interpretation of the Center, 1967. Now declassified and also available online,


Ray, William. "Reading Women : Cultural Authority, Gender and the Novel : The Case of Rousseau." Eighteenth-Century Studies 27 (Spring 1994): 421-47.

Gold, Ann Godzins. "Grains of Truth : Shifting Hierarchies of Food and Grace in Three Rajasthani Tales." History of Religions 38, no. 2 (1998): 150-171.

Masterton, Mark. Review of  The Sleep of Reason: Erotic Experience and Sexual Ethics in Ancient Rome, edited by Martha C. Nussbaum and Juha Sihvola.  American Journal of Philology 124, no. 3 (2003): 477-81.

Journal article from electronic source

McDougall, K.L., B. A. Summerell, D. Coburn, and M. Newton. "Phytophthora Cinnamomi Causing Disease in Subalpine Vegetation in New South Wales." Australasian Plant Pathology 32, no. 1 (2003): 113-15.


Web sites:

University of Tasmania Library. "Management Subject Guide". University of Tasmania Library.

[Only add access dates if the information is time sensitive.]



Marriage Act 1961 (Cth) s 11  


Statute accessed from a web site

Tourism Australia Act 2004 (Cth) s 24 <> (6 December 2004)


Style manual

The referencing recommendations in this guide are based on the Chicago manual of style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Please refer to Chapters 16 and 17 of that manual for further examples.

Traditional Note print friendly