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Referencing and assignment writing: Citing Audiovisual Media

Citing Audiovisual Media (films, audio or tv broadcasts, podcasts, maps, images, artworks, photos, etc)

For audiovisual media, use the primary contributor/s (e.g. producer, director, writer, cartographer) in the author position and identify their specific contribution in parentheses. Use square brackets to identify the medium/format, e.g. [Motion picture], [DVD], [Map]. For electronic sources, add the URL at the end of the reference (e.g. Retrieved from http://xxxxx). If the source is behind a log-in screen or a paywall (e.g., pay TV, library databases), provide the URL for the home page of the site to avoid nonworking URLs.


Film, DVD, Video

Use the producer's and director's names in the author position. 

In-Text:              (Grazer & Howard, 1985)

Reference:       Grazer, B. (Producer), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [Motion picture]. USA: Universal Studios.


Podcasts (audio or video); streaming video (e.g. YouTube)

Use the primary contributor/s as the author. Usernames can be used if no author name is available. Use Author [username] is both are available.

In-Text:                (Hollick, 2019)

Reference:          Hollick, A. (Producer). (2019, June 13). Duvet Days [Audio Podcast]. Retrieved from


Single episodes  (radio or television series)

List the script writer and director in the author position, and producer in the editor position, as you would for a chapter from an edited book.

In-Text:                 (Bergen & O'Sullivan, 2010) 

Reference:          Bergen, P. (Presenter/Writer), & O'Sullivan, M. (Director). (2010, January 28). Little gem that needs protecting
                                      [Radio broadcast]. In E. Farley (Executive Producer), ABC Rural. Alice Springs, NT: ABC.


Music recording 

In-text citations may include side, band or track numbers. 

In-Text:             (Jarrett, 1972, track 1)

Reference:      Jarrett, K. (1972). In front. On Facing you [CD]. Oslo: ECM.



An image from the web

In-Text:               (Lyne, 2009)

Reference:        Lyne, A. (2009). Grevillea rosmarinifolia 'Rosy Posy' [Photograph].  Retrieved from



An image in a print source

  • Where the image is attributed to the author

 In-Text:              (Keeble, 2001)

Reference:          Keeble, R. (2001). Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly structure [Chart].  In R. Keeble, The newspapers
(p. 159). London: Routledge.


  • Where the image is attributable to someone other than the author

 In-Text:              (Baldridge, 2004)

Reference:         Baldridge, M.J. (2004). The demolition of the Pruitt-Ioe housing project in St. Louis [Photograph]. In  P. Kivisto, Key
                                   ideas in sociology
(p. 124). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.


Information for   Audiovisual media references taken from American Psychological Association Publication Manual (2010, p. 185, 209-210).


APA tutorials

Reference list abbreviations

(APA, 2010, p.180)




Revised edition

Rev. ed.

second edition   

2nd ed.

Editor (editors)

Ed. (Eds.)



no date


page (pages)

p. (pp.)

Volume (Volumes)

Vol. (Vols.)





Technical Report

Tech. Rep.