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Referencing and assignment writing: Citing Encyclopaedia or Dictionary

Encyclopaedia or Dictionary


Print Encyclopaedia

  • For major works with a large number of editors list the lead editor, followed by et al.
  • The title serves in the author/editor position if this information is absent.


In-text:               (Squire, 1992)

Reference:     Squire, L. R. (1992). Encyclopedia of learning and memory. New York: Macmillan.


In-Text:              (Goethals et al, 2004)

Reference:      Goethals, G. & Sorenson, G.(Eds). (2004). Encylopedia of leadership. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.



Online Encyclopaedia entry with author and editor

Where there is  no page numbers use the chapter or entry title e.g. Behaviorism and paragraph number.

In-text:                 (Graham, 2005, "Behaviorism", para.4)

Reference:      Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.).
Retrieved from

Note: The use of "In" in the Reference.



Online Encyclopaedia entry with no author or editor

In-text:                ("Culture shock", 2004, para. 3)

Reference:       Culture shock. (2004). In The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. Retrieved from


Information for:

  • encyclopaedia and dictionary references taken from American Psychological Association Publication Manual (2010, p. 172, 176, 203, 205).


APA tutorials

Reference list abbreviations

(APA, 2010, p.180)




Revised edition

Rev. ed.

second edition   

2nd ed.

Editor (editors)

Ed. (Eds.)



no date


page (pages)

p. (pp.)

Volume (Volumes)

Vol. (Vols.)





Technical Report

Tech. Rep.