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Referencing and Assignment Writing guide: Citing Books & e-books


 A book

In-text:           (Sternberg, 1993) 

Multiple works by the same author in the same year are distinguished by adding a letter to the date. For example (Priest, 1990a) (Priest, 1990b).


Reference:     Sternberg, R. J. (1993). The psychologist's companion (2nd ed.). Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.


 Multiple works by the same author in the same year are distinguished by adding a letter to the date. For example (Priest, 1990a) (Priest, 1990b).


A book with two authors

In-text:             (Smith & Jones, 1948, pp. 45-46)

Reference:      Smith, F. J., & Jones, E. (1948). A scheme of qualitative organic analysis. London: Blackie.


A book with three to five authors

In-text:            (Fischer, Demetriou, & Dawson, 1992, Chapter 3)

If citing for the second time list the first author et al., and then the year eg. (Fischer et al., 1992)

Reference:     Fischer, K., Demetriou, A., & Dawson, T. L. (1992). The development of mental processing: efficiency,working memory and thinking.

                         Boston, MA: Blackwell Publishing.


A book with six or more authors

For works with six or more authors cite the first author only followed by et al. within the text. However, in the reference list entry, list all the authors. for up to seven authors,  For eight or more authors, list the first six, then insert three ellipsis points (three dots, separated by spaces), followed by the last author’s name.

In-text:             (Jones et al., 1992, p. 102)

Reference:     Jones, K. K., Peters, F., Ho, L., Wang, W., Reddy, F.P., & Smyth, R. (1992). Advances  in mental processing: Memory and thinking. Sydney, NSW: Apex.

In the reference list single authors go before multiple authors.


Ebooks or Electronic Books

If a DOI (Digital object identifier) is available use the DOI, otherwise state 'Available from' and use the URL of the home page of the book or report.


Electronic version of a print book

In-text:              (Furlong,Gilman, & Huebner, 2009, p. 7)

Reference:      Furlong, M., Gilman, R., & Huebner, S. (2009). Handbook of positive psychology. [Electronic edition].

                                      Available from

In-text:              (Schiraldi, 2001)

Reference:       Schiraldi, G.R. (2001).  The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook:  A guide to healing, recovery, and growth

                              [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722

Electronic-only book

In-text:              (O'Keefe, E. n.d., p. 7)

Reference:       O'Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Available from


Edited book

In-text:              (Hartman, 1994)

The editor's name occupies the author position for the in-text citation.

References:    Hartman, G. H. E. (Ed.). (1994). Holocaust remembrance: The shapes of memory. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.


Chapter in an edited or non-edited collection

In-text:                (Bjork, 1989)

References:      Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory and consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

For a non-edited collection just include the word ‘In' prior to the book title.

Information for:

  • authors in In-text references taken from American Psychological Association Publication Manual (2010, p. 177).
  • references for books taken from American Psychological Association Publication Manual (2010, pp. 202-205).

APA tutorials

Reference list abbreviations

(APA, 2010, p.180)




Revised edition

Rev. ed.

second edition   

2nd ed.

Editor (editors)

Ed. (Eds.)



no date


page (pages)

p. (pp.)

Volume (Volumes)

Vol. (Vols.)





Technical Report

Tech. Rep.



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