Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Legal skills - Writing and referencing

In this Guide you will find resources and advice on legal writing and referencing.

How do I reference cases?

Below are examples of referencing different types of cases in your footnotes and bibliography.

Type

Footnote

Bibliography 

Reported Judgments
 

Chamberlain v R (No 2) (1984) 153 CLR 521.

Chamberlain v R (No 2) (1984) 153 CLR 521
 

Unreported Decisions with a medium Neutral Citation  Minister for Immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI [2009] HCA 39 (23 September 2009).   Minister for Immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI [2009] HCA 39 (23 September 2009)
Unreported Decisions without a medium Neutral Citation Ross v Chambers  (Unreported, Supreme Court of the Northern Territory, Kriewaldt J, 5 April 1956) 77. Ross v Chambers  (Unreported, Supreme Court of the Northern Territory, Kriewaldt J, 5 April 1956)

 

How do I reference legislation? 

Below are examples of referencing different types of legislative materials in your footnotes and bibliography.

Type

Footnote

Bibliography 

Australian Constitution Australian Constitution s 22. Australian Constitution
Statutes (Acts of Parliment)

Criminal Code (Tas) s 5. 

Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Amendment Act 2006 (Cth) sch 1 item 46.

Criminal Code (Tas)

Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Amendment Act 2006 (Cth) 

Delegated Legislation (rules, regulations, orders)  Poisons Regulations 2008 (Tas) reg 10. Poisons Regulations 2008 (Tas)
Gazettes Tasmania, Tasmanian Government Gazette, No 21 499, 18 February 2015, 200. Tasmania, Tasmanian Government Gazette, No 21 499, 18 February 2015
Bills Coroners Amendment Bill 2014 (Tas) cl 7.  Coroners Amendment Bill 2014 (Tas)
Explanatory Memoranda

Explanatory Memorandum, Conservation and Land Management Amendment Bill 2002 (WA).

Explanatory Memorandum, Conservation and Land Management Amendment Bill 2002 (WA)

 

 

 

How do I reference websites?


Below are examples of referencing websites in your footnotes and bibliography.

Type

Footnote

Bibliography

Website: full date created

International Whaling Commission, IWC Information (4 August 2010) <http://www.iwcoffice.org/commission.iwxmain.htm>.

Note: Use the year, month, and day of date created, if available.

International Whaling Commission, IWC Information (4 August 2010)  <http://www.iwcoffice.org/commission.iwxmain.htm >
Website: no date Law Society of Western Australia, History of the Law Society of Western Australia, <http://www.lawsocietywa.asn.au/history>. Law Society of Western Australia, History of the Law Society of Western Australia, <http://www.lawsocietywa.asn.au/history>

How do I reference journal articles?

Below are examples of referencing journal articles in your footnotes and bibliography.

Type

Footnote

Bibliography

Journal Article: One author, no issue number, with pinpoint Augusto Zimmeran, 'How Brazilian Judges Undermine the Rule of Law:  A Crtical Appraisal' (2008) 11 International Trade and Business Law Review 179, 184. Zimmeran, Augusto  'How Brazilian Judges Undermine the Rule of Law:  A Crtical Appraisal' (2008) 11 International Trade and Business Law Review 179
Journal Article: Two authors, issue number, with pinpoint Simon Young and Sarah Murray, 'An Elegant Convergence? The Constitutional Entrenchment of Jurisdictional Error Review in Australia' (2011) 11(2) Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal 117, 118. Young, Simon and Sarah Murray, 'An Elegant Convergence? The Constitutional Entrenchment of Jurisdictional Error Review in Australia'  (2011) 11(2) Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal 117
Journal Article: No author, no issue number

Note, 'Live Free and Nullify: Against Purging Capital Juries of Death Penalty Opponents' (2014) 127 Harvard Law Review 2092.

Note: If the article is unsigned, the type of article, such as Note or Comment, is listed.  If the type isn't clear, begin the entry with the title. 

Note, 'Live Free and Nullify: Against Purging Capital Juries of Death Penalty Opponents' (2014) 127 Harvard Law Review 2092
Journal Article: Online journal, more than two authors, issue number with pinpoint

Sally Kift, Rachael Field and Ian Wells, 'Promoting Sustainable Professional Futures for Law Graduates through Curriculum Renewal in Legal Education: A Final Year Experience (FYE2)' (2008) 15(2) eLaw Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 145, 146 <http://elaw.murdoch.edu.au/archives/issues/2008/2/
elaw_15_2_Kift_Fieldz-Wells.pdf>.


Note: Use this format ONLY if the journal is ONLY available online.  Otherwise, cite it as a print journal.  The print citation is used in most cases. See AGLC 4.9.

Kift, Sally, Rachael Field and Ian Wells, 'Promoting Sustainable Professional Futures for Law Graduates through Curriculum Renewal in Legal Education: A Final Year Experience (FYE2)' (2008) 15(2) eLaw Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 145, <http://elaw.murdoch.edu.au/archives/issues/2008/2/
elaw_15_2_Kift_Fieldz-Wells.pdf>

 

How do I reference newspaper articles?


Below are examples of referencing newspaper articles in your footnotes and bibliography.

Type

Footnote

Bibliography

Newspaper Article: signed with pinpoint 1 Ellen Whinnet, 'Industry Poll Reserves Greens, Survey Forestry Offensive', The Mercury(Hobart), 25 September 2004, 3. Whinnet, Ellen, 'Industry Poll Reserves Greens, Survey Forestry Offensive', The Mercury(Hobart), 25 September 2004
Newspaper Article: unsigned with pinpoint 1 'Little Corporate Appeal in Green Bottom Line', Business, The Age (Melbourne), 6 June 2005, 4. 'Little Corporate Appeal in Green Bottom Line', Business, The Age (Melbourne), 6 June 2005
Newspaper Article: only available online, no page numbers 1 Farrah Tomazin, 'Kinder Wages Breakthrough', The Age (online), 19 May 2009 <http://www.theage.com/au/national/education/kinder-wages-breakthrough-20090519.bcwh.html>. Tomazin, Farrah, 'Kinder Wages Breakthrough', The Age (online), 19 May 2009 <http://www.theage.com/au/national/education/kinder-wages-breakthrough-20090519.bcwh.html>

How do I reference books?

Below are examples of referencing books, ebooks and looseleaf services in your footnotes and bibliography.

Type

Footnote

Bibliography

Book: Single Author

 G E Dal Pont, Lawyers' Professional Responsibility (LexisNexis Butterworths, 5th ed, 2013) 199.

Dal Pont, G E, Lawyers' Professional Responsibility (LexisNexis Butterworths, 5th ed, 2013)
Book: 2 or 3 Authors Kelley Burton, Thomas Crofts and Stella Tarrant, Principles of Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia (Lawbook, 2011) 80-1. Burton, Kelley, Thomas Crofts and Stella Tarrant, Principles of Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia (Lawbook, 2011)
Book: More Than 3 Authors 1 Michael Tilbury et al, Remedies: Commentary and Materials (Thomson Reuters, 5th ed, 2011) 701-11. Tilbury, Michael et al, Remedies: Commentary and Materials (Thomson Reuters, 5th ed, 2011)
Book: Organisation as Author McGill Law Journal, Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Carswell Thomson, 4th ed, 1998). McGill Law Journal, Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Carswell Thomson, 4th ed, 1998)
Book: No Author Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (Cambridge University Press, 2003) 943. Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (Cambridge University Press, 2003)
Book: Editor/s Paul Martin et al (eds), Environmental Governance and Sustainability (Edward Elgar, 2012). Martin, Paul et al (eds), Environmental Governance and Sustainability (Edward Elgar, 2012)
Book: Multi-volume E J Cohn and W Zdzieblo, Manual of German Law (Oceana Publications, 2nd revised ed, 1968) vol 1, 91.  Cohn, E J and W Zdzieblo, Manual of German Law (Oceana Publications, 2nd revised ed, 1968) vol 1
Book: Translations The Qur'an (Tarif Khalisi trans, Harvard University Press, 1972). The Qur'an (Tarif Khalisi trans, Harvard University Press, 1972)
Book: Chapter or Article in Edited Book

 Jeff Berryman and Robyn Carroll, 'Cy-près as a Class Action Remedy - Justly Maligned or Just Misunderstood?' in Kit Barker and Darryn Jensen (eds), Private Law: Key Encounters with Public Law (Cambridge University Press, 2013) 320-22.

Berryman, Jeff and Robyn Carroll, 'Cy-près as a Class Action Remedy - Justly Maligned or Just Misunderstood?' in Kit Barker and Darryn Jensen (eds), Private Law: Key Encounters with Public Law (Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Book: eBook

Robert Baldwin, Martin Cave and Martin Lodge, Understanding Regulation: Theory, Strategy, and Practice (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2012).

Note: Cite an eBook as you would a print book.

Baldwin, Robert, Martin Cave and Martin Lodge, Understanding Regulation: Theory, Strategy, and Practice (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2012)

Book: Looseleaf Service (frequently updated) in print 1 Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Thomson Reuters, ASIC Digest, vol 1 (at Update 385) [IR 08.3]. Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Thomson Reuters, ASIC Digest, vol 1 (at Update 385)
Book: Looseleaf Service (frequently updated) online

LexisNexis Butterworths, ABC of Evidence (at 12 August 2013) [400].

Note: If accessed online, omit the volume number.  Include the service number if available.  Otherwise, include the date accessed.

LexisNexis Butterworths, ABC of Evidence (at 12 August 2013)

 

How do I reference other dictionaries and encyclopedias?


Below are examples of referencing dictionaries and encyclopedias in your footnotes and bibliography.

Type

Footnote

Bibliography

Dictionary 1 Mick Woodley (ed), Osborn's Concise Law Dictionary (Sweet and Maxwell, 11th ed, 2009). Woodley, Mick (ed), Osborn's Concise Law Dictionary (Sweet and Maxwell, 11th ed, 2009)
Encyclopaedias: Electronic

1 LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (at 7 October 2011) 80 Civil and Political Rights, '4 Derogation of Powers' [80-2295].

Note: Where a legal encyclopaedia is viewed online, the volume number is omitted.  Use the date from the currency statement where indicated, otherwise, the date of retrieval should be listed.

LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (at 7 October 2011) 80 Civil and Political Rights, '4 Derogation of Powers' 

How do I reference other secondary sources?


Below are examples of referencing secondary sources such as government reports and class lecture notes in your footnotes and bibliography.

Type

Footnote

Bibliography

Law Reform Commission Reports Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice, Report No 108 (2008) vol 1, 259 [5.9] Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice, Report No 108 (2008) vol 1
Theses Ivan Milton Vodanovich, The Criminal Jury Trial in Western Australia (Phd Thesis, University of Western Australia, 1989). Vodanovich, Ivan Milton, The Criminal Jury Trial in Western Australia (Phd Thesis, University of Western Australia, 1989)
Conference Papers

1 Jenny Lin, 'Audits of Shareholder Panels' (Paper presented at the 17th Annual Congress of the World Auditors Association, Li, 12 April 1994).

Note: For conference proceedings that are published as a book, use the book chapter format.

Lin, Jenny, 'Audits of Shareholder Panels' (Paper presented at the 17th Annual Congress of the World Auditors Association, Li, 12 April 1994)
Class Lecture Notes: Print version received in lecture 1  Gary Meyers, 2014My Life in the Law,  lecture notes distributed in Introduction to LAW121 at The University of Tasmania, Hobart (2 April 2014). Gary Meyers, 2014My Life in the Law,  lecture notes distributed in Introduction to LAW121 at The University of Tasmania, Hobart (2 April 2014) 
Class Lecture Notes: Accessed online 1 Gary Meyers, My Life in the Law, lecture notes in MyLo for Introduction to LAW121 at The University of Tasmania, Hobart (2 April 2014) < http://www.utas.edu.au/mylo>. Gary Meyers, My Life in the Law, lecture notes in MyLo for Introduction to LAW121 at The University of Tasmania, Hobart (2 April 2014) < http://www.utas.edu.au/mylo>